Along with the large intestine’s inside layer, often small outbreaks are noticed; these eruptions are identified as a colon polyp. Often polyps turn malignant and are detected as cancer. Polyps often develop concentrated. They are scattered all over the colon. These polyps differ in size; they range from millimeters to several centimeters. They can be flat or bumpy; when bumpy, they are addressed as sessile, and when they grow on short stalks, they are known as pedunculated. However, the pedunculated ones look like mushrooms. While conducting screenings like colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, polyps are checked to determine whether they are malignant or not. Colon polyps are nothing to be neglected as polyps may emerge cancerously and invite untimely death. It is seen that maximum colon polyps cause cancer, and so during a colonoscopy, the usual growth of polyps can be prevented, and thus, life can be saved. Malignant Colon Polyps come with a benign appearance at endoscopy.
Are all colon polyps cancerous
Now the good news is, the maximum of the polyps are not cancerous. Polyps that are not dangerous and have no likelihood of becoming malignant mostly include inflammatory polyps, small hyperplastic polyps, and hamartomatous polyps. Now there is another genre of polyps categorized as precancerous polyps, and they have the potential to develop into cancer; clinically, they are identified as adenoma. Among all polyp types, the two most common polyp types are adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. If the polyp is greater in size, then there is a likelihood that they contain cancerous cells or may become cancer. It is challenging to determine the accurate nature of the polyp depending upon the feature. During the testing, such as colonoscopy, polyps are removed and sent for lab testing. Right after microscopic analysis, the true polyp type is determined.
When polyps turn cancerous
Existing theories and researches say that a polyp takes ten years to change into cancer. So, that is the reason why the standard interval for screening colonoscopy is ten years. However, the general guideline for screening interval is not meant for all; those with familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer are prescribed something else. There are varying reasons that trigger the development of Malignant Colon Polyps. There are environmental and hereditary factors. However, common factors include red meat intake, alcohol ingestion, smoking, obesity, eating a high-fat diet. Sometimes the risk of developing colorectal polyp pulls out for more than ten years, even when the person terminates smoking; also, generic changes are responsible for polyp development.
As the reasons for colon polyps differ from one person to another, it’s tough to generalize when determining symptoms. Few don’t experience any symptoms, so their polyp remains undetected. When the polyps reach a mature stage and screening is conducted, it becomes feasible for the doctor to decide. During varying physical movement or conducting the number of diagnostic testing, polyps are discovered. Now for those who experience symptoms, these are few which people usually experience.
⦁ Bloody stool
⦁ Prolong constipation where stool comes out with blood
⦁ diarrhea or consistent watery stool
⦁ rectal bleeding
⦁ soreness or throbbing pain, consistent or interrupted
Right after bowel, when traces of blood is seen on toilet paper or undergarments, this directly hints at rectal bleeding. Such red streaks should not be taken casually. They could be a direct hint at Malignant Colon Polyps.
When pain and soreness are felt, doctors right away carry out a series of tests.
⦁ Colonoscopy: while conducting this diagnostic procedure, a camera is joined to a skinny, supple tube processed through the anus. This permits the doctor to observe the colon and rectum. When a polyp is discovered, the doctor can either remove it right away or take some cancer analysis.
⦁ Sigmoidoscopy: This screening procedure is similar to colonoscopy, but through this process rectum and lower colon can minutely be checked. For a biopsy, sample tissue can be taken from that spot. When the doctor detects the polyp, the patient is scheduled for colonoscopy to remove the polyp.
⦁ Barium enema: when such a test is conducted, the doctor instills into the rectum liquid barium and using a special X-ray, images are taken of the colon. The colon appears white while using the barium; when polyps look dark, they can easily be identified.
⦁ CT colonography: This process uses a CT scan to click pictures of the rectum and colon. When the scan is completed, through a computer, images are compiled, and they are 2D and 3D images of the area. Often CT colonography is identified as virtual colonoscopy. Through these images, inflamed tissues are shown, polyps and ulcers are hinted at.
⦁ Stool test: While undergoing a stool test, the doctor provides a kit for stool testing. The patient needs to return the sample to the doctor for analysis when there is microscopic bleeding.
Polypectomy is one of the best treatments for colon polyps. It is one of the easiest, simpler ways to remove the polyp. Often it is seen that polyp takes a bigger formation, and removing it in one session turns to be pretty challenging. So, in that case, multiple colonoscopies are required; often, surgery is needed. Surgery is known as Colectomy. Through this procedure often, the entire colon is removed. Often part of the colon is removed through partial colectomy. However, the surgical procedure comes with some potential risks and dangers. Depending on the patient type and kind of colectomy performed, few risks are often seen to be emerging.
Patients may undergo the following symptoms
The following are a few common symptoms that may require the consultation of a doctor-
⦁ Bleeding with or without stool
⦁ Deep vein thrombosis
⦁ Serious infection
⦁ As a result of the surgery, tissues remain scarred and bruised for some time, and bowel movement turns to be obstructed.
⦁ The bladder is injured, the intestine may get injured as well. Nearby organs may face injury.
When a malignant polyp is removed through colonoscopic surgery, a follow-up colonoscopy is performed. Especially when polyp was sessile, a follow-up colonoscopy is needed. If the examination turns negative, then again, after three years, the surgical procedure is performed.